10th International Congress on Early Onset Scoliosis (ICEOS)
November 17-18, 2016

7:30 – 7:35

Welcome & Course Overview

Behrooz A. Akbarnia, MD
Paul D. Sponseller, MD


Session 1: EOS: Beyond the Spine

Alain Dimeglio, MD
Brandon Ramo, MD


Chest Wall



Long-term consequences of rib distraction: Solving one problem and creating another one

Carol Hasler, MD


Dynamic diaphragmatic measurement – MR and surface techniques

Robert Campbell, MD


Diaphragm Mechanics and the Developing Chest

Greg Redding, MD


Idiopathic scoliosis

Bert Arets, MD


Imaging and Growth



Spino-pelvic alignment and posture: Is child a miniature of adult?

Rene Castelein, MD, PhD


What is True Normal Growth of the Spine … and How Do We Measure it?

Ron El-Hawary, MD, MSc, FRCS(C)


Imaging with EOS, how does 3D help us with early onset deformity outcomes

Stefan Parent, MD, PhD

9:10 – 9:20

 Keynote: EOS and the developing lung

Behrooz A. Akbarnia, MD
Jean Dubousset, MD


Session 2: Free Papers

Rene Castelein
John Ferguson


Free Paper #1: Three Dimensional True Spine Length: A Novel Technique for Assessing the Outcomes of Scoliosis Surgery 
Alan Spurway, Jennifer Hurry, Luke Gauthier, Ben Orlik, Chukwudi Chukwunyerenwa, Waleed Kishta, Ron El-Hawary



Free Paper #2: Efficacy of Preoperative Halo Gravity Traction in Children with Severe Early Onset Scoliosis
Paul D. Kiely, Sandra L. Hobson, Kwadwo Poku Yankey, Henry Duah, Henry Tutu, Theresa Yirerong, Harry Akoto, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei



Free Paper #3: Risk of Curve Progression in EOS after Surgical Decompression of Chiari Malformation
Eric Davis, Michael Glotzbecker, Michael Troy, Lawrence Karlin, John Emans, M Timothy Hresko, Daniel Hedequist



Free Paper #4: Limiting Pre-Incision Instrument Uncovered Time via Quality Practice Intervention Decreases VEPTR Implantation Surgical Site Infections
Diane Hartman, Robert Campbell, Nikita Lakomkin, John Flynn, Michael Nance, Thane Blinman, Oscar H. Mayer, Howard Pantich, Anthony Capraro, Jesse Taylor, Brian Hanna, Keith Baldwin, Patrick Cahill, Lloydine Jacobs



Free Paper #5: Improvement of Pulmonary Function Measured by Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy after VEPTR Surgery
Michael G. Vitale, Hiroko Matsumoto, John D. Mueller, Patrick J. Cahill, Peter F. Sturm, David P. Roye, John T. Smith



Free Paper #6: Vancomycin Powder Lowers Infection Rate in Growing Rod Surgery in Early Onset Scoliosis: A Preliminary Report
R. Justin Mistovich, Connie Poe-Kochert, Jochen Son-Hing, Christina Hardesty, George Thompson



Free Paper #7: Wound Complication Risk Stratification in VEPTR Surgery
Anthony Capraro, Richard Campbell, Diane Hartman, Robert Campbell, Nikita Lakomkin, John Flynn, Michael Nance, Thane Blinman, Oscar H. Mayer, Howard Pantich, Jesse Taylor, Brian Hanna, Keith Baldwin, Patrick Cahill



Free Paper #8:Spinal Growth in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Treated with Boston Brace
Johan Heemskerk, Diederik Kempen, Mark Altena, Sebastiaan Wijdicks, René Castelein



Free Paper #9: Hemoglobin Levels Pre- and Post-Treatment as a Surrogate for Disease Severity in Early Onset Scoliosis
Michael Glotzbecker, Joshua Pahys, Patrick Cahill, Jeffery Sawyer, Michael Vitale, Alexandra Grzywna, Patricia Miller



Free Paper # 10: “Next Day” Exam Reduces Radiation Exposure in Cervical Spine Clearance at a Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center: A Pilot Study
Martin Herman, Jonathan Phillips



Free Paper #11: Growth of the Spine in Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis
Hong Zhang, Daniel Sucato



Free Paper #12: CT morphometric analysis of central airways in patients with right thoracic scoliosis and abnormal sagittal profile
Enrique Garrido, James Farrell, Prashant Valluri



Free Paper #13: Effectiveness in Casting in Non-Idiopathic Scoliosis
Dong-Phuong Tran, Charles Johnston



Free Paper #14: >Weight Gain After VEPTR Surgery May Be From Nutritional Optimization Rather Than Improvement In Pulmonary Function
Ying Li, Maksim Shlykov, Christopher Robbins, Michelle Caird, Frances Farley, Michelle Burke



Free Paper #15: Pulmonary function evaluation in children affected by neuromuscular scoliosis treated for the spine deformity with Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods
Luca Fabio Coloumbo, Miriam Gotti, Chiara Bersanini, Francesco Motta, Francesca Izzo, Valentina Caretti



Session 3: Mini-Symposium—Skeletal Dysplasias and Mucopolysaccharidoses

Muharrem Yazici
Jianxong Shen


Mucopolysaccharidoses and spinal deformities

Ralf Stuecker, MD


Molecular genetics and medical treatment of Mucopolysaccharidoses

Kurt Ullrich, MD


The Spectrum of Early Onset Spinal Deformity in Skeletal Dysplasia

Suken Shah, MD


Skeletal dysplasias – Hamburg experience

Ralf Stuecker, MD


The Cervical Spine in Skeletal Dysplasia

Suken Shah, MD


Session 4: Free Papers—The Behrooz Akbarnia Award

Ron El-Hawary
Michael Vitale


Free Paper #16: Graduation Protocol After Growing Rod Treatment: Is Removal of Hardware Without New Instrumentation a Realistic Approach?
Z. Deniz Olgun, Aykut Kocyigit, Mehmet Eroglu, H. Gokhan Demirkiran, Mehmet Ayvaz, Muharrem Yazici



Free Paper #17: Development of a Risk Severity Score Predicting Surgical Site Infection in Early Onset Scoliosis
Michael Vitale, Hiroko Matsumoto, Nicholas Feinberg, John Smith, Amer Samdani, Michael Glotzbecker, Jeffrey Sawyer, David Skaggs, David Roye



Free Paper #18: Health-Related Quality Of Life In Early-Onset Scoliosis Patients Treated Surgically: EOSQ Scores In Traditional Growing Rod Vs. Magnetically-Controlled Growing Rods
Muharrem Yazici, H. Gokhan Demirkiran, Z. Deniz Olgun, Gizem Irem Kinikli, Senol Bekmez, Mehmet Berktas



Free Paper #19: Quality of Life and Burden of Care in Patients with EOS Undergoing Casting
Emily Auran, Hiroko Matsumoto, David P. Roye, Michael G. Vitale, Peter F. Sturm, James O. Sanders, Matthew Oetgen, Sumeet Garg, Children's Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #20: Natural History of Sagittal Spinal Alignment in Children with Achondroplasia
John A. Heydemann, Suken A. Shah, Kenneth J. Rogers, William G. Mackenzie, Oussama Abousamra, Tyler Kreitz, Colleen Ditro



Free Paper #21: Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis: Brace Treatment to Skeletal Maturity
Amanda Whitaker, Alexandra Grzywna, Timothy Hresko, Lawrence Karlin, John Emans, Daniel Hedequist, Michael Glotzbecker



Ask the Faculty Case Discussions



EOS complications and unsolved problems
The surgeon’s worst complication

John B. Emans, MD
Zaid Al-Aubaidi, MD
John Al Ferguson, FRACS


Innovative techniques and solutions

Michael Vitale, MD, MPH
Muharrem Yazici, MD
Michael Ruf, MD


Cervical spine


Burt Yaszay, MD
Gregory Mundis, Jr, MD
Ilkka Helenius, MD, PhD


Session 5: Free Papers

Stefan Parent
Hazem Elsebaie


Free Paper #22: Hemivertebra Resection and Transpedicular Short Fusion in Children Younger than 5 Years. A Mid-Term Follow-Up Analysis
Jose Miguel Sánchez-Marquez, Mar Pérez, Javier Pizones, Nicomedes Fernández-Baíllo, Francisco Javier Pérez-Grueso



Free Paper #23: Traditional Growing Rod Graduates with Various Diagnoses have Similar Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes
Jeff Pawelek, Behrooz Akbarnia, Pooria Hosseini, Pooria Salari, David Marks, Suken Shah, David Skaggs, John Emans, Paul Sponseller, George Thompson, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #24: Sliding-Growing Rod Technique in the Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes and Effect on Pulmonary Functions
Tunay Sanli, Sinan Kahraman, Meric Enercan, Azmi Hamzaoglu, Selhan Karadereller, Ozcan Kaya, Bekir Yavuz Ucar, Nurset Ok, Alim Can Baymurat, Amjad Alrashdan



Free Paper #25: Five or more Proximal Anchors and including the Upper End Vertebrae (UEV) Protects Against Reoperation in Growth Friendly Constructs
Liam Harris, Lindsay Andras, Gregory Mundis, Paul Sponseller, John Emans, David Skaggs, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #26: Spinopelvic Parameters Predict Development of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis in Early Onset Scoliosis
Ozren Kubat, Virginie Lafage, Jennifer Hurry, Alexandra Soroceanu, Frank Schwab, David Skaggs, Ron El-Hawary, Children's Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #27: Ventral Rod Migration of Posteriorly Applied Growing Rod Technology for Early Onset Scoliosis
Patrick Kiely, Laura-Ann Lambert



Free Paper #28: Efficiency and Reliability of Ilio Sacral Screws in Fusionless Surgery for Neuromuscular Scoliosis: Preliminary Results of 100 Patients
Lotfi Miladi, Gaume Mathilde, Nejib Khouri, Christophe Glorion



Free Paper #29: Construct Levels to Anchored Levels Ratio and Rod Diameter are Associated with Implant-Related Complications in Traditional Growing Rods
Pooria Hosseini, Behrooz Akbarnia, John Emans, Paul Sponseller, Jeff Pawelek, Stacie Nguyen, Peter Sturm, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #30: Vertebral Column Resection: Indications and Utilization in the EOS Population
Anna McClung, Gregory Mundis, Jeff Pawelek, Nima Kabirian, Burt Yaszay, James Sanders, Paul Sponseller, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Behrooz Akbarnia, Daniel Sucato, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #31: Posterior Hemivertebra Resection and Short Segment Fusion with Pedicle Screw Fixation for Congenital Scoliosis in Children Younger than 5 Year; with minimum 8 years Follow-up
Sinan Kahraman, Ozcan Kaya, Selhan Karadereller, Nurset Ok, Tunay Sanli, Bekir Yavuz Ucar, Meric Enercan, Azmi Hamzaoglu, Alim Can Baymurat, Onur Levent Ulusoy, Ayhan Mutlu, Amjad Alrashdan



Free Paper #32: Sacral-Alar-Iliac Fixation in Early Onset Scoliosis
Ethan Cottrill, Cameron Brucker, Adam Maragalit, Paul D. Sponseller



Free Paper #33: Total hemivertebra resection by posterior approach in congenital scoliosis and Kyphoscoliosis: results with 7 years mean follow up
Marco Crostelli, Osvaldo Mazza, Massimo Mariani, Dario Mascello



Session 6:  Cervical Spine Symposium

Burt Yaszay, MD
E moderator:
Gregory Mundis


OS Odontoideum

Ilkka Helenius


Subaxial Spine Deformity

Jonathan Phillips


Cervical Spine Trauma

Jonathan H Phillips MD


Free Paper #34: Correction of Cervical Kyphosis in Diastrophic Dysplasia
John A. Heydemann, Suken A. Shah, Kenneth J. Rogers, Jeffrey W. Campbell, William G. Mackenzie



Free Paper #35: Rigid Segmental Cervical Spine Instrumentation is Safe and Efficacious in Younger Children
Ana Mitchell, Vidyadhar Upasani, Carrie Bartley, Peter Newton, Burt Yaszay



Free Paper #36: New Form of Torticollis Associated with Growth-Friendly Instrumentation
Charles Johnston, Brandon Ramo, Lori Karol



Session 7: The General Papers

Zaid Al- Aubaidi
Ron El-Hawary


Novel Approaches for Assessing Diaphragmatic Contribution to Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome: SMA as an Illustration

Patrick J. Cahill, MD


Medical Device Regulation US vs EU Establishing Safety and Efficacy

Brian Snyder MD, PhD


Free Paper #37: Surgeon Survey Shows No Adverse Events After MRI In Patients With Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods (MGCR)
David Skaggs, Regina Woon, Lindsay Andras, Hailali Noordeen, Suken Shah, Stephen Morris, John Hutchinson, Jeff Pawelek, Charles Johnston, Children's Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #38: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety of Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods in an Invivo Animal Model
Mehmet Eroglu, Gokhan Demirkiran, Ismail Aykut Kocyigit, Hasan Bilgili, Mehmet Burak Kaynar, Ali Bumin, Sadan Ozcan, Muharrem Yazici



Free Paper #39: Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods: Observed Length Increases are Lower Than Programmed
Sarah Gilday, Peter Sturm, Viral Jain, Mark Schwartz, Donita Bylski-Austrow, David Glos, Lindsay Schultz, Sara O'Hara



Free Paper #40: Results of magnetically controlled devices parallel to the spine (MAGEC / VEPTR) in children with scoliosis due to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)
Anna K. Hell, Heiko Lorenz, Batoul Badwin



Free Paper #41: Surface Degradation Linked to Actuator Pin Fracture in Magnetically Controlled Growth Rods (MCGRs)
Vasiliki Panagiotopoulou, Stewart Tucker, Harry Hothi, Johann Henckel, Alexander Gibson, John Skinner, Alister Hart, Thomas Ember, Julian Leong



Free Paper #21: Comparison of Newly Implanted versus Converted Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods (MCGR) from the Post-United States Release
Jeffrey R. Sawyer, Chun Wai Hung, Zachary J. Bloom, Hiroko Matsumoto, John T. Smith, Jonathan H. Phillips, Peter F. Sturm, Michael G. Vitale, Children's Spine Study Group



Session 8: What Have We Learned?

Moderator: Brandon Ramo
E-moderator: Lindsay Andras


Mid-term results of MAGEC: Good things and bad things?

Colin Nnadi, MBBD, FRCS


Is VCR a technique only for adolescent and adults? Can young children benefit from it?

Deszö Jeszenszky, MD


Multisegmental instrumentation and growth-friendly implants: Enemy brothers?

Azmi Hamzaoglu, MD


EOS in patients with life-threatening neuromuscular diseases: Is growth preservation a priority?                

David Farrington, MD


Lessons Learned: Something I wouldn’t do Again

Muharrem Yazici, MD


Lessons Learned: Something I wouldn’t do Again

Charles Johnston, MD


Lessons Learned: Something I wouldn’t do Again

Paul Sponseller, MD


Session 9: Masters Tips & Tricks

Moderator: Michael Vitale
E-moderator: Michael Ruf


When and How To Include the Pelvis in Growth Friendly Implants

David Skaggs, MD


Who still needs traditional Growing Rods

Laurel Blakemore, MD


How to avoid junctional problems

John Smith, MD


Temporary insertion of bone anchors

Lawrence Karlin, MD


Use of traction in EOS

Charles Johnston, MD


Tethering in the very young?

Eric Wall, MD


What are best practices for casting

Lindsay Andras, MD


Bracing in EOS

Theodoros B Grivas, MD


Scoliosis specific exercise in EOS

Michael Vitale MD


MAGEC tips and tricks (imaging, distraction intervals)

Colin Nnadi, MBBD, FRCS


Minimizing infection in EOS

Michael Glotzbecker, MD


Strategies at end of growth

Paul Sponseller, MD

P01 Moved to Free Paper #40

P02 Recommendations for lengthening of magnetically-controlled growing rods in children with pacemakers
Andrew Clarke, Daniel Chan, Mathew Sewell, Mike Hutton, Oliver Stokes

P03 Organ Dose and Effective Dose in Full Spine Examinations by EOS® Stereo-radiography with micro-dose settings
Asger Greval Petersen, Peter Heide Pedersen, Søren Peter Eiskjær

P04 3D Vertebral Morphological Measurements Using Low Dose Stereoradiography Imaging: A Comparison with CT Scans
John Flynn, René Castelein, Saba Pasha, Tom Schlösser

P05 Scoliosis Convexity is Related to Organ Anatomy
Claire Hogg, Michael Loebinger, René Castelein, Simon Padley, Siobhán Carr, Tom Schlösser, Tom Semple

P06 Vertebral modulation through Posterior Tethering Technique for Correction of Early Onset Scoliosis
Alaa Ahmad

P07 Indications and Outcomes of Instrumented Cervical Spinal Fusions in Children
Ilkka Helenius, Jasmin Aarnio

P08 Lung Functions Upright and Supine in Children with Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS)
Gregory Redding, Klane White, Robert DiBlasi, Viviana Bompadre, Walter Krengel

P09 Pulmonary Function Tests are Infrequently Used in Timing of Fusion in Children with Early Onset Scoliosis
Aaron Buckland, Gregory Redding, John Schmidt, William Lavelle

P10 Modulations of the growing rod in the management for EOS
Qibin Ye

P11 Surgical Growth Guidance with Non-fused Anchoring Segments in Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS)
Bettina Kaiser, Daniel Haschtmann, Dezsö Jeszenszky, Frank Kleinstück, Tamas Fekete

P12 Complication Classification for Growing Spine Surgery has Strong Observer Agreement
Claire Palmer, Jessica Morgan, John Smith, Mark Erickson, Micaela Cyr,Nicole Michael, Nikki Bloch, Sumeet Garg, Tricia St. Hilaire, Victoria Heagy, Children's Spine Study Group

P13 The Rib Construct for Management of Early Onset Thoracic Hyperkyphosis
Alaa Ahamd, Richard Gross

P14 Outcomes of Children with Jarcho-Levin Syndrome Treated with the Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR)
Frances A. Farley, MD, Matthew D. Abbott, MD, Michelle C. Burke, MS, Michelle S. Caird, MD, Ying Li, MD

P15 EOS Patient-Based Biomechanical Test for Growing Rod Constructs
David L. Glos, Donita I. Bylski-Austrow, Emily M. Olson, Lindsay R. Schultz, Peter F. Sturm, Viral V. Jain

P16 Pelvic Obliquity Control in Children with Neuromuscular Early-Onset Scoliosis Treated with Magnetically-Controlled Growing Rods
David Farrington, Esther Fernández, María del Mar Pozo-Balado, María Raya

P17 Asymmetrical eccentric compression effect over the immaturity spine. Experimental scoliosis by scapula to contralateral ilium tethering procedure in growing rabbits
Norberto Ventura

P18 Results of Growth Friendly Surgery Versus Casting for the Treatment of EOS in Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome
Amer Samdani, Braydon Connell, Burt Yaszay, Jonathan Oore, Ron El-Hawary, Tara Flynn, Tricia St. Hilaire, Children's Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group

P19 A Study of Safety and Efficacy in a Novel Growth-friendly Implant
Afshin Aminian, MD, Benjamin T. Smith, D.O., Eric J. Rebich D.O.

P20 Growing Rod Treatment of Dystrophic Scoliosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Jianxiong Shen, Xingye Li

P21 How often do you Lengthen?: A Physician Survey on Lengthening Practice for VEPTR
Brendan Striano, Christian Refakis, John Flynn, Patrick J. Cahill, Robert Campbell, Children's Spine Study Group

P22 VEPTR Implantation for Children with congenital scoliosis under Age 3
Carsten Ridderbusch, Josephine Berger-Groch, Oliver D. Reinsch, Ralf Stuecker

P23 Characterizing Escobar Syndrome: Frequent Congenital Anomalies, Helped by Growth-Friendly Surgery
Adam Margalit, Amer Samdani, Behrooz Akbarnia, Jeff Pawelek, Lynn McCullough, Paul Sponseller, Richard McCarthy, Richard Schwend, Children's Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group

P24 Growth Friendly Surgery is Effective at Treating Scoliosis Associated with Goldenhar Syndrome
Braydon Connell, George Thompson, Jonathan Oore, Joshua Pahys, Ron El-Hawary, Tara Flynn, Tricia St. Hilaire, Children's Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group

P25 Early Experience of Frequent Small Increment Lengthening of Magnetic Spinal Growing Rods in Children with Severe Early Onset Scoliosis
Joseph Ivan Krajbich

P26 Sublaminar Polyester Band Fixation Construct in the Treatment of Neuromuscular Scoliosis: A Preliminary Report
Eric J. Rebich D.O., Samuel Rosenfeld, Steven Kenney

P27 Cervical Spine Clearance in Pediatric Trauma Centers: The Need for Standardization and an Evidence-Based Protocol
Jonathan Phillips, Martin Herman

P28 Conversion of Rib-Based Distraction Constructs to Luque-Trolleys to Manage Severe Proximal Junctional Kyphosis: A report of 4 cases
Jessica Morgan, John Heflin, John Smith

P29 Magnetically Controlled Growing Rod (MCGR) as Temporary Distraction rods in Severe Scoliosis: A Report of 2 Cases
John Heflin, John Smith

P30 Comparison of Billing Practices and Reimbursement Associated with Rib-Based Growing Construct and Magnetically Controlled Growing Rod Procedures
Jessica Morgan, John Heflin, John Smith

P31 Comparison of Weight Percentile Gain with Growth-Friendly Constructs in Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS)
Charles Johnston, David Skaggs, John Emans, Liam Harris, Lindsay Andras, Paul Sponseller, Growing Spine Study Group

P32 Coronal Plane Spinal Stenosis in Metatropic Dysplasia I- Previously Unreported Manifestation of the Condition
Joseph Ivan Krajbich

P33 Moved to Free Paper #41

P34 Discrepancy between Programmed and Observed Distractions in Magnetically-Controlled Growing Rod Treated Patients
David Farrington, Francisco José Lirola-Criado, José Manuel Martínez-Salas, María del Mar Pozo-Balado, Noelia Domingo-Montesinos

P35 Moved to Free Paper #42

P36 Pelvic obliquity correction in distraction based growing spine constructs
David Skaggs, John Emans, Lindsay Andras, Mathew Schur, Michael Vitale, Nicholas Gonsalves, Paul Sponseller, Children's Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group

P37 Rib Based Distraction 76% Successful Managing Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Scoliosis: A Prospective Study
Claire Palmer, John Flynn, Mark Erickson, Michael Vitale, Nicole Michael, Nikki Bloch, Peter F. Sturm, Sumeet Garg, Tricia St. Hilaire, Children's Spine Study Group

P38 Cost Effectiveness of Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods: Who Really Benefits?
Allison Matthews, Ellie McNulty, Matthew Oetgen

P39 Withdrawn

P40 Anterior Cervical Corpectomy with Posterior Spinal Fusion to correct Kyphosis in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Chike Madu, Jacob F. Schulz, Jaime A. Gomez, Regina Hanstein

P41 Spinal Surgery in Achondroplasia: Outcome Analysis and Risk Factors for Impending Neurologic Deficit
Colleen Ditro, John A. Heydemann, Kenneth J. Rogers, Oussama Abousamra, Suken A. Shah, Tyler Kreitz, William G. Mackenzie

P42 A 3D Analysis of Scoliosis Progression in Non-Idiopathic Scoliosis: Is it similar to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis?
Burt Yaszay, Carrie Bartley, Fredrick Reighard, Keith Bachmann, Peter Newton, Tracey Bastrom, Vidyadhar Upasani

P43 Management of Spinal and Thoracic Deformity in Patients with Myelomeningocele Using Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib
Ajeya Joshi, David Limon, Hope Trevino, Khadija Tayabali, Robert Campbell, Vishwas Patil, Walt Simmons, William Koeck, Zach Garza

P44 Trolley Gliding Vehicle, Surgical Technique and Case Series of First Implanted Devices in Humans
Ahmed Aoude, Jean Ouellet, Sultan Aldebeyan

P45 Improving Accuracy, Precision, and Clinic Visit Time for Ultrasound Length Measurements in Magnetically Controlled Rods
Amanda Whitaker, Brian Kelly, Brian Snyder, Carol Barnewolt, Michael Troy

P46 How is definitive treatment effective in early onset scoliosis treated with Growing implants? Review of one centre series
Elena Maredi, Francesco Vommaro, Mario Di Silvestre, Stefano Giacomini, Tiziana Greggi

P47 Expansion Thoracoplasty for Severe Thoracic Lordosis Achieved Pulmonary Function Improvement in Early Adolescence
David Bumpas, George Byram, Lynn McCullough, Richard McCarthy

David L. Glos, Donita I. Bylski-Austrow, Eric Wall, Joseph Reynolds, Viral V. Jain

P49 Thoracolumbar Kyphosis in Achondroplasia: Who Resolves and Who Progresses?
Colleen Ditro, John A. Heydemann, Kenneth J. Rogers, Oussama Abousamra, Suken A. Shah, Tyler Kreitz, William G. Mackenzie

P50 Anterior Spinal Growth Tethering Leads to Asymmetric Growth of the Apical Vertebra
Burt Yaszay, Carrie Bartley, Fredrick Reighard, Megan Jeffords, Peter Newton, Tracey Bastrom, Yi Yang

P51 Rigid Stabilization of Cervical Spine Lesions in Neurologically Symptomatic Patients Does Not Improve Recovery in Comparison With Older Techniques
Jonathan Phillips

P52 Surgical Site Infections after Early Onset Scoliosis Definitive Fusion Surgeries
Patrick J. Cahill, Randal R. Betz, Stephen A. Albanese, Swamy Kurra, William Lavelle

Jorge Mario Morales, Jose Luis Bas, Paloma Bas, Pedro Rubio, Silvia Perez, Teresa Bas

P54 VEPTR Implantation to Treat Children with Early Onset Scoliosis without Rib Abnormalities: A Prospective Multicenter Study
Amer Samdani, John Flynn, John Smith, Michael Vitale, Muayad Kadhim, Ron El-Hawary, Children's Spine Study Group

P55 Treatment of Neglected Atlanto-axial Rotatory Displacement
Niki Fransen, Pierre Moens, Sebastiaan Schelfaut

P56 Retrospective Review of Shoulder Balance Comparing Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) to Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS)
Patrick J. Cahill, Randal R. Betz, Stephen A. Albanese, Swamy Kurra, William Lavelle

P57 Surgical treatment of severe scoliosis in young children using magnetically controlled growing rods – initial experience in a prospective cohort
Benny Dahl, Martin Gehrchen, Thomas Andersen

P58 Effectiveness in Casting in Non-Idiopathic Scoliosis
Dong-Phuong Tran

P59 Use of a Proximal Augment Allows for Repeated Use of a Magnetically Controlled Growing Rod After Maximal Distraction
Daniel Miller, Patrick J. Cahill

P60 Curve Progression in Girls with Idiopathic Scoliosis during Juvenile through Adolescent
Daniel Sucato, Hong Zhang

P61 Proximal Rib-Based Constructs in EOS: Long-Term Follow up and Survivorship
Alexandra Kondratyeva, Chun Wai Hung, Hiroko Matsumoto, Joshua Pahys, Nicholas A. Feinberg, Sumeet Garg