11th International Congress on Early Onset Scoliosis (ICEOS)
November 16-17, 2017

Thank you to all those who joined us at the Growing Spine Foundation's 10th Anniversary Benefit & Gala last month! It is our pleasure to inform you that over the course of the evening, we raised an incredible amount to supporting medical education and scientific research to optimize the quality of life of children with Early Onset Scoliosis. See below for our final numbers!

Growing Spine Foundation - Gala Video

Photos from the Growing Spine Foundation's 10th Anniversary Benefit and Gala

ICEOS Gala and Benefit 2017

7:30 – 7:35

Welcome & Course Overview

Lindsay Andras, MD
Laurel Blakemore, MD

7:35 – 9:20

Session 1: What DO We Know in 2017

Moderator: Behrooz Akbarnia
E-moderator: John Ferguson

7:35 – 7:45

Everything I Know About Chest and Spine Growth in Ten Minutes

Alain Dimeglio, MD

7:45 – 7:55

Chest and Spine Growth: What Have We Learned from Bones?

Rick Schwend, MD

7:55 – 8:05

What Pulmonary Assessment Should We Do and When Should We Do It?

Greg Redding, MD

8:10 – 8:20

Have We Improved Pulmonary Function? Outcomes to Date, Future Directions

Charles Johnston, MD

8:20 – 8:30

Have We Improved Functional Outcomes? State of Knowledge

Michael Glotzbecker, MD

8:30 – 8:40

What are the Advantages and Limitations of MCGR?

Matt Oetgen, MD

8:40 – 8:50

How Should We Finish? Strategies for Ending Growing Rods

Muharrem Yazici, MD

8:55 – 9:05

Use of 3D Technology in Assessment and Treatment

Rene Castelein, MD

9:05 – 9:15

Future Biologic and Genetic Therapeutic Strategies

John Smith, MD

10:00 – 11:40

Session 2: Evaluation and conservative treatment of the EOS patient

Moderator: David Skaggs
E-moderator: Stephan Parent


Free Paper #1: Continued deterioration in pulmonary function at minimum 18-year follow-up from early thoracic fusion in non-neuromuscular scoliosis
Daniel Bouton, Lori Karol, Kiley Poppino, Charles Johnston



Free Paper #2: Classification of Early Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) and Pulmonary Function Outcomes
Klane White, Bompadre Viviana, Norman Ramirez, Shing Varakitsomboon, Sumeet Garg, Gregory Redding, Walter Krengel



Free Paper #3: Can TGR change the natural history of pulmonary functions in EOS? Is Radiological Straightness Correlated with Normal Lung Development?
Ebru Celebioglu, Alper Yataganbaba, Oncel Asli, Ceren Degirmenci, Ismail Aykut Kocyigit, Fatih Tekin, H. Gokhan Demirkiran, Elmas Ebru Yalcin, Ahmet Ugur Demir, Muharrem Yazici



Free Paper #4: Referral Patterns and Prevalence of Sleep Abnormalities in Children with EOS
Gregory Redding, Michelle Ho, Bompadre Viviana, Klane White, Walter Krengel, Maida Chen



Free Paper #5: Pre-operative Six Minute Walk Performance in Children with Congenital Scoliosis
Noriaki Kawakami, Hiroko Matsumoto, Toshiki Saito, Ryoji Tauchi, Tetsuya Ohara, Gregory Redding



Free Paper #6: Organ System Anomalies Associated with Congenital Scoliosis: A Retrospective Study of 310 Cases
Scott Luhmann, Ryan Furdock



Free Paper #7: Repeated Anesthetics and Radiographic Imaging during Traditional Growing Rod Management
Christopher Migdal, Eric Klineberg, Joel Lerman, Max Haffner, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Rolando Roberto



Free Paper #8: Cumulative Anesthesia Exposure in Patients Treated for Early Onset Scoliosis
Fady Baky, A Noelle Larson, Scott Echternacht, Todd Milbrandt



Free Paper #9: Nano-Dose Protocol for 3D Reconstruction of the Spine in Early Onset Scoliosis: Preliminary Results of a Phantom Based and Clinically Validated Study using Stereo-Radiography
Peter Heide Pedersen, Fred Xavier, Claudio Vergari, Wafa Skalli, Søren Peter Eiskjær, Raphael Vialle



Free Paper #10: 3D Assessment of Spine Growth in Early Onset Scoliosis during Growing Rod Lengthening
Burt Yaszay, Naveed Nabizadeh, Megan Jeffords, Christine Farnsworth, Fredrick Reighard, Joshua Doan, Jeff Pawelek, Gregory Mundis, Behrooz Akbarnia



Free Paper #11: Reliability of spino-pelvic and thoracic measurements with the EOS in patients with magnetically controlled growing rods in-situ
Peter Obid, Karen Yiu, Kenny Kwan, Kenneth MC Cheung, Jason Pui Yin Cheung



Free Paper #12: Effectiveness of Bracing Alone in Idiopathic EOS
Isabelle Bernardini, Franck Accadbled, Jérôme Sales de Gauzy



Free Paper #13: Early Onset Scoliosis: Results of Cotrel Mehta Casting from a Single Institution
Kim Hammerberg, Jennifer Schottler



Free Paper #14: Curve Reduction, Radiation Exposure, and Anesthesia Exposure in Serial Elongation De-Rotation Flexion Casting
Christopher Migdal, Joel Lerman, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Rolando Roberto



Free Paper #15: A United Kingdom single centre review of the impact of extended waiting times in Early-Onset Scoliosis: the effect of a delay to surgical treatment of greater than 12 months.
Morgan Jones, Matthew P Newton Ede, Jwalant Metha, Adrian Gardner, Jonathan B Spilsbury, David Marks

1:45 – 3:00

Session 3: Mini-Symposium: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

Moderator: Jack Flynn, MD
E-moderator: Ron El-Hawary, MD

1:45 – 2:00

Overview of Neusinersen and other treatments

Leigh Ramos Platt, MD

2:00 – 2:25

Pulmonary care in SMA: what the spine surgeon should know

Mary Schroth, MD

2:25 – 2:35

Anesthesia care and pain management in SMA

Lydia Andras, MD

2:35 – 2:50

Spine/Surgical considerations

Mike Vitale, MD

3:15 – 3:55

Session 4: Free Papers

Moderator: Ken Cheung
E-moderator: Amy McIntosh


Free Paper #16: HIF-1α critical to Somitogenesis and interacts with the Notch pathway leading to vertebral malformations
Angela Yao, Frances Farley, Ernestina Schipani



Free Paper #17: Early Onset Scoliosis within the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS)
Jelle Homans, Vyaas Baldew, Tom Schlösser, Moyo Kruyt, René Castelein



Free Paper #18: Slow and gradual preoperative Halo Traction provides safe correction of severe scoliosis in patients with Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Michael To, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, EricYeung, YL Fan, DH Zhong, Kenneth MC Cheung



Free Paper #19: Utilization and Reliability of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Vertebral Column Resections for Severe Early- Onset Scoliosis
Anna McClung, Gregory Mundis, Jeff Pawelek, Sumeet Garg, Burt Yaszay, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, James O. Sanders, Paul Sponseller, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, William Lavelle, John Emans, Charles Johnston, Behrooz Akbarnia, Children’s Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #20: Vertebral Column Resection for Early-Onset Scoliosis: Indications, Utilization and Outcomes
Anna McClung, Gregory Mundis, Jeff Pawelek, Nima Kabirian, Sumeet Garg, Burt Yaszay, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, James O. Sanders, Paul Sponseller, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, William Lavelle, John Emans, Charles Johnston, Behrooz Akbarnia, Children’s Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #21: Posterior Vertebral Column Resection (PVCR) for Congenital Thoracic Lordoscoliosis in children under age of 10 with minimum 5 years follow-up
Cem Sever, Sinan Kahraman, Selhan Karadereler, Lim Sze Wei, Tunay Sanli, Meric Enercan, Azmi Hamzaoglu

3:55 – 5:15

Ask the Faculty Case Discussions


Cervical Spine

Fran Farley, MD
Suken Shah, MD
Patrick Cahill, MD


Syndromic scoliosis: NF, Marfan’s, etc

Paul Sponseller, MD
Ilkka Helenius, MD
Jianxiong Shen, MD


Sagittal Plane Problems

Ken Cheung, MD
Stephan Parent, MD
Ralf Stuecker, MD


Session 5: Distractions

Moderator: Burt Yaszay
E-moderator: Michael Glotzbecker


Free Paper #22: Unplanned Return to OR for EOS Children: A Comprehensive Evaluation of all Diagnoses and Instrumentation Strategies
Jason Anari, John Flynn, Michael Vitale, John Smith, Jaime A. Gomez, Children’s Spine Study Group



Free Paper #23: Comparison of Complications and unplanned OR visits between Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods and Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib
Benjamin Roye, Chun Wai Hung, Hiroko Matsumoto, Megan Campbell, David P Roye, Michael Vitale



Free Paper #24: VEPTR Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) in Children without Rib Abnormalities: Long-Term Results of a Prospective, Multicenter Study
Ron El-Hawary, Kevin Morash, Muayad Kadhim, Michael Vitale, John Smith, Amer Samdani, John Flynn, Children’s Spine Study Group



Free Paper #25: Quantifying the ‘Law of Diminishing Returns’ in Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods
Adil Ahmad, Thejasvi Subramanian, Pavlos Panteliadis, James Wilson-Macdonald, Dominique Rothenfluh, Colin Nnadi



Free Paper #26: Maximal Force Generated by Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods Decreases with Rod Lengthening
Selina Poon, Hillard T. Spencer, Ronen Sever, Robert Cho



Free Paper #27: Rod lengthening with the magnetically controlled growing rod: factors influencing rod slippage and reduced gains during distractions
Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Karen Yiu, Dino Samartzis, Kenny Kwan, James Tan, Kenneth MC Cheung



Free Paper #28: The Best Distraction Frequency for Optimizing Spine and Rod Length Gains with Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods
Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Karen Yiu, Kenneth Cheung, Scott Luhmann, Charles Johnston, Peter F. Sturm, Jeff Pawelek 14



Free Paper #29: Does the Type of Proximal Anchor Used During Distraction-Based Surgeries for Patients With Non-Idiopathic EOS Affect Spine Length?
Yehia El Bromboly, Charles Johnston, Anna McClung, Amer Samdani, Michael Glotzbecker, Tricia St. Hilaire, Jennifer Hurry, Padhye Kedar, Tara Flynn, Ron El-Hawary



Free Paper #30: Congenital Spine Deformity with Fused Ribs Treated with Proximal Rib- vs. Spine-Based Growing Constructs
Fady Baky, Larson A Noelle, David Skaggs, Tricia St. Hilaire, Jeff Pawelek, John Emans, Joshua Pahys, Children’s Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #31: The Oxford 5 year observational study on 35 patients with Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods (MCGR)
Adil Ahmad, Thejasvi Subramanian, Pavlos Panteliadis, James Wilson-Macdonald, Dominique Rothenfluh, Colin Nnadi



Free Paper #32: Early onset scoliosis treated by Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods: Mid- to long-term follow-up and analysis of 5 graduates
Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Karen Yiu, Kenny Kwan, Kenneth MC Cheung



Free Paper #33: Magnetic Spinal Growth Rods (MCGR) with and without Preoperative Traction for the Treatment of Severe Scoliosis
Michelle Welborn, Timothy Degan, Charles D’Amato, Joseph Ivan Krajbich



Free Paper #34: Treatment of Severe Early Onset Scoliosis using Distraction Based Spinal Instrumentation: A matched comparative study
Ilkka Helenius, Hanna Oksanen, Anna McClung, Jeff Pawelek, Muharrem Yazici, Paul Sponseller, John Emans, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, George Thompson, Charles Johnston, Suken A. Shah, Behrooz Akbarnia, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #35: Comparison of EOSQ-24 and SRS-22 scores in Congenital Scoliosis
Ying Li, Michelle C. Burke, MS, Joel Gagnier, Michelle Caird, Matthew D. Abbott, MD, Frances A. Farley



Free Paper #36: Multi-level Congenital Deformities in Early Onset Scoliosis: Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes in Growth Friendly Graduates
Naveed Nabizadeh, Burt Yaszay, Anna McClung, David Skaggs, George Thompson, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Paul Sponseller, Suken A. Shah, James O. Sanders, Jeff Pawelek, Gregory Mundis, Behrooz Akbarnia, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #37:  high degree of variability exists in how “safety and efficacy” is defined and reported in growing rod surgery for early-onset scoliosis: A systematic review
Pooria Hosseini, Areian Eghbali, Jeff Pawelek, Karen Heskett, Gregory Mundis, Behrooz Akbarnia



Free Paper #48: Growth Guidance Constructs with Pedicle Screws (SHILLA) Results in 1/5th of Normal T1-S1 Growth Summary
Alexander Nazareth, David Skaggs, Stefan Parent, Suken A. Shah, James O. Sanders, Lindsay Andras, Growing Spine Study Group



Session 6: Maximizing Quality and Outcomes

Moderator: Matt Oetgen, MD
E moderator: Ying Li, MD

10:35 – 10:42

Quality of life and family impact

David Farrington, MD

10:42 – 10:49

Social media and treatment

Amy McIntosh, MD

10:49 – 10:55

Update on FDA and Growing Spine Techniques

Robert Campbell, MD

11:00 – 11:07

Checklists and Protocols: Lowering Complication Rates in EOS

Ron El-Hawary, MD

11:10 – 11:17

Quality Safety and Value Initiatives

Noelle Larson, MD

11:17 – 11:25

What Does the Changing Healthcare Environment Mean for EOS Treatment

Steve Ondra, MD

11:30 – 12:00

Keynote: Dr. Kenneth MC Cheung
“Thinking Outside the Box on a Global Scale”

Introduction by Behrooz Akbarnia, MD


Session 7: Cost, Quality and Complications

Moderator: Charles Johnston, MD
E-moderator: TBD


Free Paper #38: Cost analysis of a growth guidance system compared with magnetically controlled and traditional growing rods for early-onset scoliosis in the US: an integrated health care delivery system perspective
Scott Luhmann, Eoin McAughey, Ackerman Stacey, David Bumpass, Richard McCarthy



Free Paper #39: Short term HRQoL results in MCGR and TGR patients - divergent from long term EOSQ results in TGR graduates
Dong-Phuong Tran, Charles Johnston



Free Paper #40: Is There an Improvement in Quality of Life with Early Onset Scoliosis Managed with Traditional Growing Rods Converted to Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods?
Jennifer Bauer, Petya Yorgova, Geraldine Neiss, Kenneth J. Rogers, Peter F. Sturm, Paul Sponseller, Scott Luhmann, Jeff Pawelek, Suken A. Shah



Free Paper #41: Two Year HRQOL Measures are Similar Between Magnetically-Controlled Growing Rod Patients and Traditional Growing Rod Patients
David Skaggs, Behrooz Akbarnia, Jeff Pawelek, Hiroko Matsumoto, Tricia St. Hilaire, Peter F. Sturm, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, Scott Luhmann, Paul Sponseller, John Smith, Klane White, Michael Vitale, Children’s Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #42: Spinopelvic alignment affects Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) for Patients with Early Onset Scoliosis
Jaime A. Gomez, Ozren Kubat, Jennifer Hurry, Alexandra Soroceanu, Tara Flynn, Mayra Tovar, Regina Hanstein, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, John Smith, David Skaggs, Ron El-Hawary



Free Paper #43: A Multi-Center Assessment of Neurological Changes in Distraction-Based Surgery for Early-Onset Scoliosis
Matthew Newton Ede, Jeff Pawelek, David Skaggs, John Emans, Suken A. Shah, George Thompson, Adrian Gardner, Jwalant Mehta, David Marks, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #44: Pull-Out of the Upper Thoracic Pedicle Screws Can Cause Spinal Canal Encroachment in Growing Rod Treatment
Senol Bekmez, Ismail Aykut Kocyigit, Zeynep Deniz Olgun, Mehmet Ayvaz, H. Gokhan Demirkiran, Muharrem Yazici



Free Paper #45: Development of a Risk Severity Score (RSS) Predicting Surgical Site Infection in Early Onset Scoliosis: Identifying High-Risk Patients
Hiroko Matsumoto, Megan Campbell, Anas Minkara, David P Roye, Sumeet Garg, Charles Johnston, Amer Samdani, John Smith, Paul Sponseller, Peter F. Sturm, Michael Vitale, Children’s Spine Study Group, Growing Spine Study Group



Free Paper #46: Building the Case for Optimal Prophylaxis for Growth-Friendly Surgery for Non-idiopathic Scoliosis: Using Vancomycin and Aminoglycosides
Anas Minkara, John Flynn, Hiroko Matsumoto, Michael Glotzbecker, John Smith, Amer Samdani, Lisa Saiman, Michael Vitale



Free Paper #47: Spasticity is a Risk factor of Complications and Surgical Outcome in the Management of Early-Onset Neuromuscular Scoliosis with a Rib-Based Growing System
Gerardo Olivella Santana, Norman Ramirez-Lluch, Omar Rodriguez, Pablo Marrero, Michael Vitale, John Smith, Sumeet Garg, Randal R.Betz, Children’s Spine Study Group



Session 8: I’ll Never Do That Again: Avoiding Complications

Moderator: TBD
E-moderator: Greg Mundis, MD

1:50 – 2:00

Pedicle Screws

Dezsö Jeszenszky, MD, PhD

2:00 – 2:10


Colin Nnadi, MD

2:10 – 2:20

Fixed Apex/Sliding End Construct

Brandon Ramo, MD

2:20 – 2:30


John Emans, MD

2:30 – 2:40


Amer Samdani, MD


Session 9: Masters Tips and Tricks

Moderator: Laurel Blakemore, MD
E-moderator: Hazem Elsebaie, MD

3:10 – 3:20

When I Cast and When I Don’t

Suken Shah, MD

3:20 – 3:30

How I Optimize Patients Preoperatively

Dave Skaggs, MD

3:30 – 3:40

How I Assess Spinal Growth During Treatment

Moyo Kruyt, MD

3:45 – 3:55

Which Osteotomy Should I Use in Congenital Scoliosis

Lindsay Andras, MD

3:55 – 4:05

When To Instrument to the Pelvis and When Not To

Paul Sponseller, MD

4:05 – 4:15

When Do I Think ABVT is a Good Option?

Peter Newton, MD

4:15 – 4:25

Timing of Intervention in Anomalies in the Cervical Spine

lkka Helenus, MD

4:25 – 4:35

How I Decide What To Do at the End of Growth Friendly Treatment

Burt Yaszay, MD

P01 Distraction-to-stall ensures spinal growth in Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods
Benny Dahl, Casper Dragsted, Søren Ohrt-Nissen, Thomas Andersen,  Martin Gehrchen

P02 Discriminative Characteristics of the Early Onset Scoliosis-24-item Questionnaire (EOSQ-24) and its Usefulness in Follow-up Examinations
Ragnhild Susanne Molland, Lein M. Diep, Jens Ivar Brox, Britt Stuge, Holm Inger, Thomas Kibsgard

P03 Risk and Benefits of Definitive Fusion to Graduate Patients with Early Onset Scoliosis at the End of Distraction-based Programs
Javier Pizones, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, José Miguel Sánchez Márquez, Nicomedes Fernández Baíllo, Mar Pérez Martín-Buitrago

P04 MCGR Elongation - Actual vs Intended Length Gained and Clinical Efficacy
Dong-Phuong Tran, Charles Johnston, Kaitlyn Brown, Brandon Ramo

P05 Distraction-Based Surgeries Increase Spine Length for Patients with  Non-Idiopathic EOS - 5 Year Follow up
Yehia ElBromboly; Jennifer Hurry; Kedar Padhye; Charles Johnston; Anna McClung; Amer Samdani; Michael Glotzbecker; Tricia St. Hilaire; Tara Flynn; Ron El-Hawary; Children’s Spine and Growing Spine Study Groups

P06 Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Halo-Gravity Traction in Early Onset Scoliosis
Brian Yang, Jill Larson, Michael Glotzbecker

P07 Anchor Dislodgement and Rod Breakage during Traditional Dual Growing Rod Surgery in Early Onset Scoliosis
Yoh Fujimoto, Haruhisa Yanagida, Toru Yamaguchi

P08 Distortion of Length Measurements on Digital Images
Michelle Welborn, Nikolas Baksh, Timothy Degan

P09 Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods: Sagittal Plane Analysis and the Risk of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis
Pirnendu Gupta, Felix Brassard, Jennifer Schottler, Alicia January, Ron El-Hawary, Ben Roye, Jeff Sawyer, Kim Hammerberg, CSSG

P10 Use of Intra-Operative CT Guided Navigation versus Freehand/Fluoroscopy in Spine Surgery for Patients Age 10 and Under
Fady Baky, Scott Echternacht, Todd A. Milbrandt, A. Noelle Larson

P11 Comparison of Surgical Results and Complication Rates between SHILLA and Magnet-driven Growing Rods (MdGR) for Early-onset Scoliosis at Five Years
Nanjundappa Harshavardhana, Hilali Noordeen

P12 Safe Parameters for Utilizing Magnetic Growth Rods in Patient with a Vagal Nerve Stimulator
Michael J. Elliott, Jesua Law

P13 Excessive correction of thoracic kyphosis increases the risk of proximal junctional kyphosis
Joan Ferràs Tarragó, Paloma Bas, Jorge Mario Morales Valencia, Silvia Pérez Vergara, Pedro Rubio Belmar, Teresa Bas, José Luis Bas Hermida

P14 Novel Approach to Multilevel Congenital Scoliosis in Young Children
Joseph Ivan Krajbich

P15 Nano-dose Protocol For Cobb Angle Assessment In Early Onset Scoliosis: Preliminary Results of a Phantom Based And Clinically Validated Study
Peter Heide Pedersen, Fred Xavier, Søren Peter Eiskjær, Claudio Vergari, Wafa Skalli, Georges Charpak, Raphael Vialle

P16 What is the Role for Elongation, Derotation, Flexion Casting in Treating Early-Onset Scoliosis in Children with Connective Tissue Disorders?
Graham T. Fedorak, Alexandra N. Nielson, John A. Heflin, Jaques L. D'Astous

P17 Does Rod Orientation and Use of Cross Connector Affect Spinal Height In Magnetically Controlled Growing Rod Patients?
Pooria Hosseini, Behrooz A. Akbarnia, Stacie Tran, Jeff Pawelek, Charles E. Johnston, Suken Shah, John Emans, Gregory M. Mundis, Burt Yaszay, Peter F. Sturm, GSSG

P18 Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods in Early-Onset Scoliosis: The Graduates
O C Shirley, A Field, A Barrie, J Ferguson

P19 Spinal Deformities in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Chinese Patients – Analysis of 106 Cases
Michael To, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Eric Yeung, YL Fan, DH Zhong, Kenneth MC Cheung

P20 15-year Trend Analysis of Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgeries
Swamy Kurra, Katherine Sullivan, Ravi Dhawan

P21 Effectiveness of Bracing alone in Idiopathic EOS
Isabelle Bernardini, Franck Accabled, Jerome Sales de Gauzy

P22 Does Casting Have Negative Implications on Pulmonary Function in  Early Onset Scoliosis? Evaluation of Pulse Oximetry in Pre- and Post Casting
Kazuki Kawakami, Toshiki Saito, Ryoji Tauchi, Tetsuya Ohara, Noriaki Kawakami

P23 Posterior Hemivertebra Resection and Pedicle Screw Fixation for Congenital Kyphoscoliosis in Children under Age of 10 Years with mean 7 years follow-up
Sinan Kharaman, Cem Sever, Selhan Karadereler, Lim Sze Wei, Yesim Erol, Tunay Sanli, Meric Enercan, Azmi Hamzaoglu

P24 Continued Thoracic Vertebral Convex Apical Growth Despite Vertebral Body Stapling (VBS)
Richard Schwend, Robert Tung